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As more and more carbon composite materials are used in structural car parts, how to evaluate collision damage and repair it?
The MP4-12C supercar of McLaren Motors Ltd. has a full CFRP "MonoCell" monocoque/cabin/chassis (in the center of the exploded view). The one-piece RTM, 75 kg / 165 lb "bucket" not only provides the vehicle with firmness and lightweight strength (dry weight is only 1,301 kg / 2,868 lb), but also ensures excellent occupant protection in the event of a collision on an F1 car . Source: McLaren Automotive Co., Ltd.
The McLaren MP4-12C also has a wide range of CFRP on the sill panel, steering wheel, seat, interior panel, rear diffuser (orange components in the exploded view of the opened photo), front splitter and external steering blades . Source: McLaren Automotive Co., Ltd.
McLaren goes to great lengths to ensure that its MonoCell is well protected by the front collision tank, rear engine frame and door structure. Here, photos from one of multiple high-speed test crashes show that the MonoCell is not damaged. In fact, after three collisions with the concrete wall, the bathtub remained intact. Source: McLaren Automotive Co., Ltd.
The new Aventador LP700-4 of Automobili Lamborghini adopts an integrated full CFRP single-shell hard aluminum subframe (above). The one-piece design forms a complete roll cage for Formula One occupant protection. Source: Automobili Lamborghini AG
Auto Lamborghini realized early on that the widespread use of carbon composite materials would make it difficult for cars to be repaired in the field. Therefore, in cooperation with Boeing and the Lamborghini Automotive Advanced Composite Structure Laboratory at the University of Washington, they developed an evaluation of the new Aventador LP700-4 CFRP components are then provided for on-site repair. Source: Automobili Lamborghini AG
Substantial repairs were made to the chassis components in the Ferrari Formula One car (circa 1990), which showed repair strips and circular patches made of carbon fiber prepreg after the component was ridden on the curb. (The other circles on the chassis are processed high points for precise assembly of the floor.) Source: Automobili Lamborghini SpA
Repairing the carbon fiber composite material attached to the white body of a street car is nothing new. In the early version of the Dodge Viper supercar, the carbon fiber reinforced SMC fender bracket has been attached to the car's steel space frame, but it can be removed and repaired or replaced. The three-piece assembly is glued together and riveted together, and then glued to the steel space frame of the vehicle. The mechanics at the Chrysler dealership will heat the parts, take them out, clean the area and stick new fender supports where appropriate. Source: Chrysler Group LLC
The amount of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) used in the global automotive industry is still very small, mainly limited to racing cars, super sports cars and high-end luxury cars. However, the recent strategic alliances between automakers and carbon fiber suppliers to cope with increasingly stringent fuel economy and carbon emission standards make it possible to believe that ultra-lightweight carbon composite materials will soon be used in mass production. Used in the car. As the processing speed increases and the cost of raw materials decreases, carbon fiber-intensive mass-produced cars will be on the road in large numbers. However, the inevitable accidents will bring two challenging problems for OEMs, dealerships and body repair shops:
In a few high-end cars that have used carbon fiber composite materials for body panels, those damaged hoods, trunk lids/trunk lids, roofs, wings and door panels usually need to be removed and replaced. Despite the high cost, there is little economic incentive to try to repair such parts, and this is unlikely to change in high-volume applications. However, as CFRP becomes more and more critical
To replace the parts on the chassis, it may not be necessary to replace the main part of the car structure. But so what? Is there a way to repair/rebuild critical structures
In the event of severe damage, will the entire vehicle be discarded-an unpopular choice for both the car owner and the insurer?
Recently, I have looked for car manufacturers, and these cars already have a considerable structural CFRP content to understand the possible maintenance strategies when CFRP becomes mainstream.
Ian Thomson, Technical Director of Emerging CFRP Parts Manufacturer
(Surat, India) has more than 25 years of experience in advanced composite materials for Formula One (F1) and endurance sports cars. As an expert in collision/energy absorbing structures, he repaired many damaged CFRP in his own time. "Now, people seem to be a little nervous about it, the trend is
Damaged parts. "He said. "But in the past 1980s and early 1990s, with Williams, Ferrari and Sauber, we would sit together, study how to carry out repairs, and then do it. Of course, we didn't tell the driver," he said with a smile.
Thomson describes seeing a lot of heavy things
Damage to non-structural critical areas, such as pushing wheels into the chassis after "lightly brushing" the wall. The team will start with a visual inspection and then conduct a coin tap test. "Sometimes we also use ultrasound
," he said. "Then we will walk around and literally mend the area. We bag it and use a heat lamp or silicone heating blanket to cure the patch. In Formula One, we already have all the tools to do this work internally, and when we can fix something, it always impresses the boss. "
Thomson mentioned a favorite book about repairing aircraft composite structures and followed closely the development of the aerospace industry before applying his technology to racing cars. Since the carbon fiber composite materials on vehicles at the time were mainly unidirectional laminates, they would use approximately 1 mm/0.04 inch thick patches for non-structural critical areas and extend 25 mm/1 inch beyond the damaged area. Of the patch. But for structural areas that are more critical for suspension or driver safety, they will use huge lap joints to improve safety, and then perform load tests (use simple torsion tests or push-pull tests for suspension joints) and compare The measurement results are contrary to the records of each enclosure recorded throughout the season. He added: "This helps to dispel the "myth" that racing engineers and chassis drivers have become "soft", which has happened with riveted aluminum chassis, which is not the case with carbon fiber composites."
"We will peel off the outer skin, trim it off, and then bond the core together by creating a scarf seam to form a nice patch with a slope ratio of 7 mm [0.28 inches] per 1 mm length [0.039] Inch]." They will use the same prepreg as the original part, but the curing window is more flexible and can be cross-linked at a lower temperature (~80°C/~176°F). He recalled: “The 3M prepreg we carried has an ambient temperature life of 12 months. It was originally developed for the military to repair bullet holes. We will use 3M film adhesive to bond the prepreg to Damaged parts." "If the damage is really serious and we have to make another part to be cured for bonding, then we will use a paste adhesive for attachment." The default solution is another 3M product , Known as 9323 adhesive, this multifunctional material can adhere well to most substrates. "We have been tinkering with these cars and continuing to run them-sometimes as long as 10,000 miles (16,093 kilometers)-until it is no longer worth it (by weight)."
He admitted that the maintenance strategy of road vehicles may vary depending on the location of the damage. He suggested: "There are many body repair shops in Europe that can repair composite materials, but if the damage involves the chassis, you really want it to return to people who know what they are looking at." The most recent case was in the United States. There was a problem with the CFRP sports car chassis in the "Cyberlin 12 Hours" event. As it happens, there is a high-quality composites company nearby. Thomson and his European structural engineering colleagues talked to the American composites company about repairs. "This is due to the courage of the technical director, who appointed a local person to solve this problem, and his trust in me and my colleagues. The composite company asked the right questions, so we all felt very comfortable. They said that The chassis is well maintained. Although it is located in a critical area, it is a flat place, so repairs are relatively easy."
When McLaren Motors Limited (Woking, UK) is ready for its new CFRP-intensive product
As a supercar to be launched in 2011, the automaker is committed to making the positive experience and affordable service possible in terms of maintenance, repair and parts availability (see "McLaren: Multi-level Customer Support", in Under "Editor's Recommendation"). This is a good thing, because this mid-seat two-seater engine uses an all-in-one full CFRP MonoCell battery. Passenger cars with such a single trunk cannot even be evaluated by most repair shops, let alone repaired. (See the picture above).
Although MonoCell is a predictable form for the installation of key components and provides a stronger and simpler solution for the chassis structure of metal structures, it is also expensive. Therefore, McLaren’s first line of defense against cell repair after a collision is to avoid them. The front and rear of the car are made of aluminum anti-collision structure, imitating the chassis structure of a racing car. Claudio Santoni, head of McLaren's automotive body structure department, said: "We have put in a lot of effort to ensure that MonoCell is well protected, and there are always sacrificial elements that will fail first." The company said that these "bolted" structures are not only in collision It absorbs a lot of energy, and is easy to repair or replace, and the price is relatively cheap. Santoni said: "The design of this car has a high degree of modularity."
He claims that using the same MonoCell to hit the concrete wall multiple times has proved his strategy: even after 3 hits, the battery is still undamaged, and all damage is limited to the metal structure around the MonoCell (see above). He said: "If we do it with an aluminum cockpit, it will bend and crack." "Although you can straighten the car again, the weld is very fragile and very dangerous. We are doing it here. It is a different concept. We think it has obvious advantages over aluminum and steel vehicle structures. Aluminum and steel vehicle structures usually require repairs, but there is a risk of retaining undiscovered weaknesses."
Santoni added that the road accidents that occurred during the car development plan also showed that McLaren's strategy was correct. After replacing the victim, the vehicle quickly returned to the road. Based on more than 20 years of experience in the manufacture of carbon fiber supercars and sports car chassis, the McLaren team reported that the most common form of chassis damage is caused by rocks hitting the floor, while mechanics outside the McLaren network did it out of good will. Unsuspecting mechanic. The jack was placed in the wrong position and damaged the floor.
In this case, after careful visual inspection and (if necessary) ultrasonic inspection, McLaren will hand it over to a well-trained mechanic in the service network for simple repairs, which can be performed at room temperature The infusion technique performed is complete. The engineering team that designed MonoCell will handle more complex repair procedures. In extreme cases, if the damage is sufficient to affect the chassis, the vehicle may suffer a severe crash and continue to suffer other damage. Santoni said that in this case, his team at the McLaren Technical Center has extensive experience in rebuilding various parts of the MonoCell (and repairing other CFRP vehicle structures), so it can be used for parts that are not important to crash performance. Repair it-but if there is any doubt, the company will replace the MonoCell instead of repairing it. Santoni added: "One of the business opportunities that the industrialization of carbon fiber chassis production has brought us is the ability to incorporate this "risk-free" decision into our quality control."
When Sant'Agata Bolognese (Sant'Agata Bolognese) prepared for the latest two mid-engined rockets launched in 2011,
, The company made every effort to improve the previous weight and structural rigidity benchmarks. The key to achieving these goals is the use of carbon fiber composites more than its predecessor, carbon fiber composites.
And development assistance from Boeing and the University of Washington Lamborghini Advanced Composite Structure Laboratory (ACSL), both of which are located in Seattle, Washington.
, Aventador's front and rear are both single-piece, rigid aluminum subframes with full CFRP single-sided connection, but Lamborghini's design and manufacturing methods are completely different from its British competitors. This one-piece design includes a complete passenger compartment, including A-pillar and B-pillar, roof and rear bulkhead, which form a complete roll cage for F1 occupant protection (see Figures 4 and 5). Despite its excellent performance, the weight of the entire chassis is only 147 kg / 324lb. The car also uses CFRP extensively on the vertical body panels, the rear engine trunk lid and the rear air intake.
Lamborghini realized early on that this widespread use of carbon fiber composites would pose challenges for on-site repairs, so he worked with Boeing and ACSL to develop a strategy to assess the extent of damage suffered by carbon fiber composites.
CFRP components, and then provide customers with professional on-site support. Casper Steenbergen, head of maintenance at the Lamborghini Advanced Composites Research Center (ACRC), said: "We have developed a complete strategy to determine whether to repair or replace the car when the car is damaged. Of course, we use FEA for a lot of analysis, From there, it identified several areas that are more important to the safe operation of the car than other areas."
Dr. Paolo Feraboli, Assistant Professor of Aircraft Materials and Structures and Director of ACSL, said that the composite maintenance strategy is mainly based on the experience and knowledge gained from the collaborative research work that began in 2008. Feraboli was previously a contract engineer/scientist at Boeing and an engineering intern at Lamborghini. He said that Boeing held a seminar in Seattle several years ago to train Lamborghini engineers and ACSL members to perform complex repairs on carbon fiber composites. In turn, ACSL uses this knowledge to support Lamborghini's own ACRC in Aant'ata, develop maintenance strategies and establish a global maintenance network for these vehicles. ACSL continues to support Lamborghini's efforts to develop new methods to use more streamlined processes to perform repairs faster.
The damaged Aventador customer first drags it to the nearest Lamborghini dealer or repair shop, where the car will be inspected. Next, damage reports (including written and photo documents) and quick claims will be prepared and submitted through Lamborghini's web-based portal. Experts from various departments of Lamborghini ACRC will check this information and try to determine the extent of the damage. If they suspect more serious damage, they will send a technician from an external company specializing in non-destructive testing (NDI) to conduct a careful inspection. This technology will bring on-site portable ultrasound and thermal imaging cameras and inspect vehicles for potential damage in key areas of the car.
A second report including the test results will be sent back to Sant'Agata, where it will be checked together with the original report. If ACRC's multidisciplinary team determines that a key chassis component has been damaged, it will send a specially trained technician to repair the car, who understands both carbon fiber composite materials and vehicle engineering technology. The automaker calls this elite group "flying doctors", and there are currently only four flying doctors in the world. They stated that they are on standby, 24/7/365 to go to any location that damages the Aventador composite structure.
Equipped with everything needed for advanced composite repairs on site, technicians are ready to make a relatively simple patch or a more complex common board (cut from a large piece of carbon composite material) to reinforce the damaged component area . Since the vehicle combines multiple CFRP forms-including prepreg and RTM/braid on Class A and non-Class A parts-the technician has prepared all the materials that may be needed to repair the damage (please Refer to "CFRP Repair:
"Editor’s Choice" under "Editor’s Choice". It’s worth noting that each Flying Doctor’s tool kit contains a hot melt glue machine connected to two different heating blankets, each The heating blanket has its own controls, so two different materials with two different curing cycles can be repaired at the same time.
Depending on the degree of damage, repairs may take 1 to 14 days. Steenbergen said that so far, there has been only one incident that is serious enough to require this level of support. Of course, the cost of this repair strategy is much lower compared to replacing major chassis components or scrapped cars.
Because carbon fiber composite components often consolidate multiple metal parts, and because adhesive bonding is an economical and load-bearing method for attaching composite parts to the human body in white, maintenance may be problematic. But according to Mike Shinedling, Viper Project Manager, SRT Engineering Company, Chrysler Group LLC (Auburn Hills, Michigan), this is not the case. Three-piece carbon-reinforced SMC fender support from an early version of Dodge
For example, it can be bonded using Pliogrip structural adhesive from Ashland Inc. (Covington, Ky.), then riveted together (while the adhesive is cured, mechanical fasteners hold the parts in place) and bonded to the vehicle Steel space frame. However, when the viper causes continued damage to the structural part, the mechanics at the Chrysler dealership will use another Pliogrip adhesive to heat the part, remove it, clean the area and install a new fender support assembly.
Shinedling said: "Using modern adhesives, heating and separating the bonded joints is not a big deal, so the parts can be repaired." "For us, bonding is a more effective way to connect structures by spreading the functional load of the parts. Method. And because it provides a barrier, it also eliminates the problem of galvanic corrosion.” He does admit that it’s not always easy for a mechanic in the field to judge whether a carbon fiber composite part is the best repair or replacement. But he added: “Just like metal parts, every replacement of parts is the best solution. .”
Of course, the biggest problem at present is how BMW (Munich, Germany) plans to deal with the maintenance of the CFRP chassis components of the upcoming i3 and i8 electric vehicles that will be launched in 2013. BMW refused to participate in this story, but the target production volume of these platforms is being discussed at 100,000, which is several orders of magnitude larger than the supercars mentioned here, and may be produced at a smaller order of magnitude cost, so they will need to be at a higher cost. Benefit for maintenance. BMW wants to make customers happy. The composites industry is facing challenges and opportunities again. It needs to work hand-in-hand with automakers to help composites develop (especially carbon fiber composite composites) intensive vehicles. By helping them develop simple and inexpensive methods to assess damage, Make it a reality. Repair the structural parts on site and then repair them. What is certain is that supporters of automotive aluminum and steel will receive attention.
As the wind energy market continues to grow, the competition between glass and carbon fiber composite materials for turbine blades has become increasingly fierce.
Fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) replaces coated steel in reinforced concrete applications.
Fast-reacting resins and faster processes make economical mass production possible.
Copyright ©2021 Gardner Business Media, Inc.
Within one week of the virtual 93rd National FFA Conference and Expo, the 2020 agricultural proficiency winners were nominated.
The purpose of the Agricultural Ability Award is to commend FFA members who have achieved actual results through the following activities
(SAE), has developed specialized skills that can be applied to future occupations. The students completed various fields from agriculture to wildlife management. The Proficiency Award is also recognized at the local and state levels and provides recognition to members who have explored and established their agricultural career paths.
Related: Keep up to date with all the news of the 93rd National FFA Conference and Expo
These recipients are:
William Joseph Gaspard of the FFA branch of the Louisiana Academy of Agricultural Sciences felt that he had realized the importance of agriculture after entering the seventh grade of the Introduction to Agricultural Science class. He decided to write a column about what he learned for the local newspaper. Therefore, he cooperated with the local agricultural bureau agent. He started blogging and making videos for their social media platforms. Gaspard eventually became an intern in the Public Relations and Information Department of the Louisiana Department of Agriculture. He spends 20 to 30 hours a week producing written and visual content. He is supported by his parents Monique and William and his FFA consultants Summer Anderson and Ward Bordelon. Bader Rutter and Red Brand sponsored this ability.
Since graduating from high school, Madison Alivia Taylor of the FFA Chapter of Newton College and Vocational College in Georgia knew that she wanted to be an agricultural educator. Encouraged by her FFA consultant, she focused on early childhood agricultural education. She cast a shadow on elementary school teachers, helped develop basic agricultural courses, created an agricultural literacy program, which has been adopted by all 14 elementary schools in her community, and assisted in planning livestock performances. Taylor also participated in a teacher meeting hosted by her local agricultural bureau. She was supported by her parents Lee-Ann and Tim and FFA consultants Cecily Gunter and Marcus Pollard. The James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation sponsored this capability.
In California, when he was introduced to welding and making on a family farm, Cole Marchi of the Turlock FFA branch in California was only 9 years old. Only two years later, he began to learn the basics of art, and his first project was to make and build a roof rail with a cable fence for his performance animals. Through learning arc welding and MIG welding skills and advanced cutting technology, Marchi has manufactured ATV hydraulic dump trailers and 34-foot tilt trailers. He is supported by his parents Lori and Bob and his FFA consultants Randee Prada-Vitorino, Joe DiGrazia, Anton Fernandes, Chad Booth and Alexandra Hahlbeck. Lincoln Electric sponsored this capability.
Terrance Crayton of the Wetumpka FFA Chapter in Alabama has a small engine repair service in which he repairs four-stroke and two-stroke engines on agricultural equipment. He uses Facebook Marketplace and classified ads to find and sell devices. He also received donations for unusable equipment from people in the community. He regularly repairs wire trimmers, tillers, lawn mowers and other equipment by replacing spark plugs, rebuilding vaporizers, replacing coils, replacing piston rings and rod bearings, etc. Clayton was supported by his father Terrance and FFA consultants William Norris and Keith Lucy. Kubota and Mystik Lubricants sponsored this capability.
Dawn Douglas of the FFA Chapter of Scrapven County, Georgia, worked for Wammock Milling Company, SmithCo Heavy Diesel Service, and Yancey Caterpillar. His responsibilities include maintaining the plant's equipment, including payloads used to move feed commodities in feed mixers and trucks used to haul feed to customers. Other positions allow him to repair heavy diesel equipment, including tractors and 18-wheelers, as well as repair Caterpillar equipment, such as bulldozers, excavators, and forestry equipment. Douglas was supported by his parents, Brandy and Dick, as well as his FFA consultants Nancy Sayler, Cali Smith and Zach Weaver. The tractor supply company sponsored this capability.
Creed Ammons of the Taylor FFA branch in West Virginia started his entrepreneurial ham and bacon curing work, processed retail pork, and oversaw the freshman’s agricultural experience. He also raises and processes fresh holiday turkeys, which meets the large needs of his community. He uses the facilities in the school’s agricultural education program for free, including walk-in coolers, band saws, curing chambers, drying chambers, smokers, grinders, meat mixers and vacuum sealers. Ammons is supported by his parents Deanna and Leon and his FFA consultants Leon Leon and Anne Hall Erwin. The National FFA Foundation and the National FFA Organization sponsored this capability.
Alyssa Loredo of the FFA Chapter of Merced, California, has supervised agricultural experience, called wild game jerky, which involves the sale of domesticated and exotic animal jerky products. Her business started on a small scale and she set up stalls at local events such as county fairs and industrial festivals. Today, in addition to expanding sales in California and Nevada, Loredo also has an Amazon online store. She currently has more than 30 jerky dishes, from crocodiles to bison and even ostriches. She was supported by her mother Justina and FFA consultants Steve Mua, Nicole Cecil, Karl Montague, Lesley Zorra, Julia Brewer and Stefanie Kuhr. Nutrien Solutions and Valent USA Corporation sponsored this capability.
Austin Timmerman of the FFA chapter of Versailles, Ohio works at Superior Implement and Supply Company, a wholesale distributor of farm, lawn and garden equipment in Ohio, Indiana, New York and Pennsylvania. His responsibilities have evolved from shipping, filling orders, mowing/landscaping and inventory inventory, to utilizing software inventory, testing new equipment and customer service. Timmerman is supported by his parents Barb and Gary and his FFA consultants Dena Wuebker and Taylor Bergman. Cargill and Fastenal sponsored this capability.
Cason Love of the FFA chapter of Stephenville, Texas works for a custom hay baler company. The business involves providing customers with agricultural services such as mowing, baling and hauling hay. In total, the operation performed custom hay on approximately 1,200 acres of land. His responsibilities include hauling equipment, cutting grass and running the tractor with a baler. The operation mainly included bales of 1,000 to 1,200 pounds of hay from the coast of Bermuda. Parents (Jennifer and Robert) and FFA consultant (Ryan Best), Savannah Bowers (Savannah Bowers), Brock Burch (Brock Burch) and Jordan Smith (Jordan Smith) support love. The National FFA Foundation and the National FFA Organization sponsored this capability.
The next eight proficiency winners will be announced at the second regular meeting. The 93rd National FFA Conference and Expo will be held from October 27th to 29th this year. For more information, please visit
Jacob Daniel Dierking of the FFA Chapter of Santa Fe, Missouri, started renting land from two nearby landowners in 2015. He initially occupies 29 acres, but has grown to 122 acres in recent years. He planted sweet corn, green beans, yellow corn and soybeans. Network with local businesses, landowners and other farmers to develop and diversify your own business. His parents Marla and Joel, as well as his FFA consultant Martha Schreiman provided support for him. National FFA foundations and organizations sponsor this capability.
Nathan Randy Kroeger of the FFA Chapter in Carroll, Iowa, works for his family’s crop farm and grain transportation business. His task is to complete the production of all corn and soybean crops, from planting and harvesting to farming and applying chemical fertilizers, fungicides, pesticides and pesticides. The business includes 1,800 acres of soybeans and 6,000 acres of corn. They use a continuous flow grain dryer system and 36 grain bins to store more than one million bushels. Kruger has the support of his parents Michel and Kevin, and his FFA consultant Brady Eischeid (Brady Eischeid). AgReliant Genetics and the CHS Foundation sponsored this capability.
Kaylie Nicole Roberts of the FFA Chapter of Tift County, Georgia, started a home beautification project using flower beds and gerbera daisies in middle school, which inspired her passion for art. Then, after school, she volunteered to work in her school’s greenhouse watering plants. In the end, Roberts began to collect floristry and nursery garden plants, arranging flowers by himself. She also added blackberry, strawberry, cabbage and marigold seedlings for reproduction. She was supported by her parents Katherine and Russell, as well as her FFA consultants Lynne Cook, Brittney Schwing, Heath Cross and Carl Nichols. Toro Company sponsored this capability.
Cory Yarbrough of the FFA Chapter in Madison County, Georgia, is busy managing his family’s herd, raising pigs for his uncle, and working as a research assistant in the Poultry Science Department at the University of Georgia. He has been managing these 75 cows since the seventh grade. Over time, he increased the population to 275 breeding stocks, heifers and calves, and established an identification system and a method of maintaining records. He started raising pigs in 2016. As a paid poultry research assistant, he maintains the nutritional needs of the entire broiler breeder, which is also responsible for waste management, semen collection and processing, and artificial insemination of hens. Yarbrough got his parents Melissa and Jimmy and his FFA consultants Kalie Hall Blevins, Kathrine Bell, Cindy Jones ) And Josh Daniel's support. Bekaert and Tractor Supply Company sponsored this capability.
Spencer Stephens of the Golden Valley FFA branch in Merced, California, was only ten years old when he started working for the family business SS Blue Diesel Exhaust Fluid. His work is particularly focused on the cleaning and maintenance of facilities. The fluid is a mixture of deionized water and urea. When used in combination, it is used in all new tractors, trucks and other agricultural-related equipment, thereby reducing carbon emissions in the air because it removes monoxide Dinitrogen. Stephens got his parents Nicole and Trevor and his FFA consultants Rebecca Mendonza, Vikki David, and Cody Ya Supported by Cody Jacobsen, Corey Mesa and John Olson. The CHS Foundation sponsored this ability.
Ashlyn Mohling of the Central FFA Chapter of Adams, Nebraska, has been taking care of and riding horses from an early age. She takes care of 5 horses for the horse project, ensuring their health and safety so that they perform well. Throughout the year, she will show her horses in exhibitions of places, states and dog breeds in all disciplines from the West to English. Mohling also teaches children with special needs how to brush horses, interact with horses, and perform therapeutic riding for children aged 8 to 18. She is supported by her parents Heather and Brett and FFA consultant Brandon Jacobitz. Zoetis and Red Brand sponsored this capability.
Deyvet Carbajal of the FFA Chapter of Madeira, California, is the main ranch operator for his family ranch, where he takes care of all the horses and trains them to dance. The ranch specializes in the breeding and rearing of Frisian and Aztec horses. The original populations of these horses are imported from the Netherlands, Guadalajara, Jalisco and Mexico City, Mexico. These horses have been taught the art of "dancing" and can be performed in charreria competitions in California and Mexico. The ranch currently has nine stallions for breeding and three mares for breeding programs. Carbajal is supported by his parents Irma and Martin and his FFA consultants Julie Luxon, Cory Withers, Brianna Ellis, Hannah Bianchi, Kristin Sheehan, Crystal Luera and Brent Geor. The tractor supply company sponsored this capability.
Peter Bliss of the FFA Chapter of Merced-Kingu, California, remembers sitting on his father's lap when he was three years old, haying and plowing cotton fields. When he entered the sixth grade, he was planting and harvesting cotton while operating a tractor and harvester. After graduating from high school, he inherited 30 acres of vacant land and planted his own cotton. Today, he grows on 182 acres of land and manages all field preparation, irrigation, planting, chemical application and Acala cotton harvesting. Bliss got his parents Jenny and Michael and his FFA consultants Vicki Davis, Cody Jacobson, Rebecca Mendoza Corey Mesa and John Olsen stand by. Bunge North America sponsored this capability.
Mallory White of the FFA Chapter of Union County, Kentucky, is engaged in feed production on her family farm. The forage planted in the operation includes cereal rye, fescue, orchard grass, red clover and Latin American clover. It is mainly used for cattle/calf cattle feed on farms. Her responsibilities include performing all production activities such as cutting, tilting, sorting, baling and moving bales, maintaining production equipment, and even deciding when to conduct production activities. White’s parents Brooke and Ryan and her FFA consultants Kelsie Bewley, Emilee Graves and Jeremy Hill provided support. Claas of America sponsored this capability.