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This ridiculous WWI body armor somehow never managed to get fielded - We Are The Mighty

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One of the most magical feelings in the military is the moment when you finally return to the tent or barracks and finally get rid of the Kevlar helmet and IOTV. At that moment, when you can finally breathe and realize that you are sweating, it is simply glorious.

Just like today's armor, the slight pain on the buttocks (of course, visually speaking, this is the pain of the lower back and knees visually). Take the first effective ballistic armor developed by the US Army for World War I as an example.

I will introduce you to the ugly behemoth called the "Brewster Shield".

For an eccentric inventor and scientist, that guy has some huge "biceps."

(Call from San Francisco)

When the United States entered the First World War, it opened up people's eyes. The war has changed

In just a few years. Now, only twelve years after the Wright brothers’ historic flight in Kitty Hawk, the cavalry on horseback is useless against machine gun lairs, poisonous gas is flooded with war es, and fixed-wing motorized aircraft It was used in war.

The Italians have begun to deploy updated versions of their knight armor for

, But it has more symbolic meaning than any practical use. Germans began to give

Protective armor that can carry several bullets and protect the vital organs of the wearer from explosives. The United States believes they can surpass all of these with their own alternative version.

If American infantry dared to fly over the bullet barrage in no man’s land and they need to be as fast as possible, the United States hopes to provide some protection for its infantry. The U.S. government turned to a creation

Dr. Guy Otis Brewster.

Begin manufacturing armored suits made of 0.21 inches of chromium-nickel alloy steel-enough to withstand 0.303 British bullets at a speed of 2,700 feet per second (820 m/s). It also uses a V-shaped design to minimize the direct impact of any upcoming bullets. The whole thing is divided into two parts and weighs 110 pounds.

Then it's time

. Dr. Brewster invited Army officers and representatives of steel mills and rubber companies to testify. As a mad scientist, he put on the armor himself and stood on the line of fire to test.

His assistant swung at him with a hammer and sledgehammer, and was eventually shot by a Springfield rifle. He said that being hit by the suit was “only one tenth of the time hit by a sledgehammer.”

You can watch the recording below.

Despite its protective features, it was considered too heavy, too awkward, and too large to be deployed. Dr. Brewster did not take it lightly, trying to prove its value. He tested again

Obviously, he can withstand the hail of the Lewis machine gun, and he is obviously wearing a suit.

In the end, he never managed to obtain "body shield" approval from the US government because it was impossible to move and almost completely obscured visibility. However, he will later create a steel-size vest that resembles more modern bulletproof vests.

Lieutenant 1st Jessica Pauley became the first female infantry soldier of the Idaho National Guard in 2019. She is now appointed C Company of the 2nd Battalion of C Company of the 116th Cavalry Regiment, as its first women's platoon leader. (U.S. Army/Farris Crystal)

United States

It was recently announced that by the end of this year, female soldiers will be included in all its infantry and armored brigade combat teams.

According to a recent press release from the Army, 601 women are currently entering the infantry profession, while 568 women are entering the armor profession.

Major Melissa Comiskey, head of policy at the G-1 Army Command, said in a press release: “However, the number of women in combat weapons is increasing every year.” “We are in the infantry and armor industries. It’s been three years since China had employed women in China. This is no different from when the Army first implemented the integration plan three years ago."

Former Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta started the process by lifting the ban on women serving in combat in 2013. Then, the U.S. Army launched a historic effort in 2015 to open the Ranger School, which was previously only male, to female applicants.

Of the 19 women who initially volunteered in April 2015, it was Capt at the time. Kristen Griest and First Lieutenant Colonel Shaye Haver

That August.

The press release stated that the plan is to include female soldiers in the last 9 of the Army’s 31 infantry and armored BCTs this year. The department did not disclose how many girl soldiers there are currently in the other 22 BCTs.

First, the gender integration plan requires that two female officers or noncommissioned officers with the same military professional expertise be assigned to each company that directly receives the initial training of women.

Now, the rule has been changed to require only one female official or NCO to enter a company that accepts junior enlisted women.

Comiskey said it is still important to have female leaders stationed among younger infantry and armored soldiers to help ease the cultural change of all-male organizations throughout history.

She said: "Frankly speaking, young soldiers will ask NCO leaders questions." "The stock of infantry and armored female leaders is not as large as our junior soldiers.... It takes longer to develop leaders."

In 2019, the Army began to

, Georgia;

, new York;

,Kansas;

Louisiana; in Italy

Oscar-nominated Sam Elliott (Sam Elliott) will tell a four-part documentary series

, This is all the steps in the arduous training required for American soldiers to serve in the 3rd Infantry Regiment. The 3rd Infantry Regiment, also known as the "Old Guard", is perhaps the most famous because it received the sentry guarding its own sentry.

.

It is the follow-up to the award-winning 2016 feature documentary of "Time to Kill Productions"

, This was carried out after the sentinel training. The creators Neal Schrodetzki and Ethan Morse, who served as guards in front of the tomb together, will now train in accordance with the intense training cycle, preparing corps and honor guard caisson platoons, United States Army exercise team or a full-time funeral in London. Arlington National Cemetery.

Morse and Schrodetzki have exclusive use rights provided by the US Army to capture these previously undocumented training cycles. Their mission is the same as that of Sam Elliott, and the reason he agreed to join the project: in memory of the fallen.

Elliott's contribution to military narrative helped Morse play a pivotal role. "After seeing Sam Elliott become a joint cavalry general of John Buford (Union Cavalry), I first became interested in the military

. Fast forward a few years, and like Mr. Eliot, I served in the California Army National Guard. "

Elliott enjoys a high reputation in the military world, thanks in part to his iconic role in movies and other films

with

In addition, his voice is as soft as molasses. You just know it is.

Before any troops deploy or perform training missions, their chain of command will send out a list of items they need to carry, or at least a list of items that are highly encouraged. Some things absolutely make sense: sleeping bags, changing uniforms, and hygiene products are all essential.

However, the commander sometimes insisted that the items carried by the unit were either used by no one or worthless, so that they were not as good as dumbbells.

Each unit decides which list to list or not to list, so each package is different. It may not be something useful the next day, but these outliers are almost always unwelcome.

I want to say that common sense is common sense...but...you know...

(Photo of the US Marine Corps, taken by Colonel Nathaniel Clay)

Hygiene kits are essential. Don't let that annoying bastard, make everyone think about the legality of driving you out of the tent during the field exercise.

That being said, all of us should be able to exercise some common sense. Your packing list does not have to itemize small items, such as nail clippers or deodorant. But at the same time, NCO does not have to check again whether it has the necessary number of shaving heads.

In addition, if you return home in a uniform, you will earn extra "TYFYS" points.

(Photo by Alexa Culbert, Senior Pilot, US Air Force)

Is there the word "special" in your organization's name? Do not? Well, you'd better not open those blue jeans when you are in the country, because you will never wear them.

The reason for bringing only one piece of civilian clothing is that the troops changed their clothes to RR or emergency leave when they were deployed, but no one changed their clothes because they needed to wear uniforms in Kuwait, and they might not have to change them when they were on the plane. uniform.

This may be a personal matter, but when I get new boots, I will throw away all the old, nasty boots. Or donate them. Just an idea.

(United States Air Force, photo taken by Robert L. McIlrath, First Class Air Force)

Ounces make pounds heavier, and given their size, an extra pair of boots is actually a lot heavier. As long as you have a good pair on your body, and you (hopefully) don't destroy them in the wild, the excess may only take up space-and make your duffel bag smell like feet.

Just use the pair you are currently wearing in uniform. that's it.

All you need is a woobie, you will never forget it.

(U.S. Army photo)

If it is summer, you may not need the winter warming material and the additional layer on it. Yes, it might get cold at night, but not

cold.

It's about using your brain to come up with what you might actually need, even by chance. Does the weather forecast say there is a small chance of rain? Bring your rain gear. If the weather is sunny or partly cloudy, please bring some rain gear (this is fieldwork. It always rains). Is it because July died, is the chance of snowfall absolutely zero? Except for night lighters, nothing else.

if they

Tell you to take it... prepare for a drunken world.

(U.S. Army picture, photo by Eric Unwin)

If your supervisor explicitly tells you to pack MOPP equipment for training, it may be because you have to take a class while you are outside. If it is in the reserved state of the copy and paste spreadsheet, it will be a heavy burden.

Make an informed decision here. If you are unsure, ask your team leader if it is really necessary.

Again, this falls into the category of "If your order says it's one thing, it's one thing".

(Photo of the U.S. Army Reserve, John Russell)

Obviously, you need laundry supplies to deploy-you will be away for many months, and your few changes to the uniform will not last. However, if you only use it for field work on weekends, you won't even find a launderette in the back 40 of Fort Campbell. Of course, you may want to bring a waterproof bag to hold stinky clothes and wet socks, but do you want to bring washing powder? Not that important.

Save yourself a buck or two and think about it.

(Photo by Julie Mitchell, Ministry of Defense)

It's not a bad idea to exchange some more "lowest price" things given to you by the military for better quality. However, if you do, run it through the command chain to make sure you are authorized. If not, it is a waste of money, space,

weight.

Airman Magazine sat down with General Tim Ray, commander of the Air Force Global Strike Command, and conducted an in-depth interview. The following excerpt highlights how Command continues to innovate and explore possible techniques. There are only traces of the history of the Strategic Air Command; these pilots are now commandos. There must be excellence and teamwork spirit in the job description; they are attracting talents and working hard to keep them in-house, thus establishing a world-class nuclear power and conventional remote strike team.

: What does it mean to be a "forward"?

The commandos stood on the shoulders of giants such as Schriever, Doolittle, Arnold and Eaker. That is our legacy. We have learned that air and space forces are not perfect. This is about overcoming obstacles and challenges. The strikers are engaged in business that no one else can do. The assaulter knows the score; the score is that there are no Allied bombers there. Intercontinental ballistic missiles without allies. As attackers, what we do every day is the foundation of the free world's security structure. This fact can be seen in the eyes of our opponents and in the eyes of our allies. In a very important aspect, our flight attendants ride a lot of things, and we must do it right every day.

What challenges does Global Strike face and some of the conversations and solutions your team is proposing?

For us, it is about thinking about the competitive space we are in at the end of the Cold War. In fact, only one team has stopped this powerful competition, namely the United States. We enjoy a world order that benefits us. Now, our players on the field have regional influence and capabilities, as well as global strength, and we also have some regional players who want to ensure that they have greater influence. Therefore, please consider North Korea, Iran, China and Russia. Therefore, how we compete with them is not an easy task. When you take a step back and think about it, how do we compete in this long-term strategic competition?

One thing I am very proud of the order is the work we do with the weapon generation facility. This is an example: the old build requirements are very expensive and somewhat outdated. We brought in a cross-functional team from the entire Air Force. We give everyone a right and left limit and let them really consider this matter. The result of this effort is an option to recapitalize our facilities at one third of the cost. We have saved hundreds of millions of dollars, and they will have better security and better capacity. I think this is a commercial game that we need to continue to play. And to provide powerful related functions, which is much more affordable for us as the air force and for us as the military. I think this is how we continue to deal with this particular problem, thinking about the context, what we must do to find a solution to these problems.

The US Air Force B-52H Stratofortress, together with four Saudi Arabian F-15C Eagles, conducted a low-altitude crossing over the Prince Sultan Air Force Base in Saudi Arabia on November 1, 2019. The B-52H is deployed from Barksdale Air Force Base and is part of the Bomber Task Force, which operates outside Fairford, the Royal Air Force. The aircraft is a long-range strategic bomber capable of delivering a large number of sophisticated weapons to any enemy. The bomber carried out an assault on the U.S. Central Command area of ​​operations with the purpose of conducting interoperability training with Saudi partners to support our common regional security interests. Strategic bombers help maintain stability in CENTCOM and U.S. European Command (EUCOM) operational areas, and provide combat commanders with rapid response capabilities upon request. Last week, B-1B Lancer's visit to PSAB was a visit to CENTCOM, which once again demonstrated the United States' commitment to defending its allies and partners.

Can you talk about the atmosphere of how we handled things during the Cold War, and how things are different in today's great power competition?

With the Cold War, there has been polarization and a certain number of competitors. Confrontation with the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union against everyone else; we have the lead. Now, we are multi-polarized with competitors such as China, Russia, North Korea, Iran, etc., and violent extremist organizations are facing challenges; they are now part of the equation. Therefore, you must consider this global situation more broadly.

Now, what is not happening in the conversation is what is happening in space, the Internet, supersonic speed, the information field, the Internet, social media and all these influencers. When you start to understand what is going on there, it is a completely different game.

How do you maintain your command vector and vision in the ever-changing competitive space?

When you read this book

, We found no losses due to lack of tactics, technology or procedures. It is always because of the lack of ability to adapt to what is happening. Therefore, when I consider this particular space, you must realize that this is actually more of a chess game. Therefore, you cannot try to win every move. But you must avoid putting it on the chess board without a choice. This is how the enemy plays the game. Therefore, you need to know how to confront the enemy. Of course, when board maneuvers are required, you will think more strategically. When you consider this dynamic and how the Soviet Union dealt with us, they tried to win every day, but it didn't work for them. Therefore, we take a step back and consider what is happening. You must set the pace to build profits and compete sustainably.

What is the head of the Global Strike Command in 2030?

The 2030 mandate will understand the readiness and capabilities of the ecosystem. How we look at it these days is quite numerical. And, when you start to modernize and change, you must think of it as an ecosystem. You must consider the speed at which new technologies can be adopted. You must think about it at a certain speed to make it relevant to your previous conflicts and put these features into use in a timely manner. You must understand the training requirements and manpower.

Therefore, we are building an innovative hub-StrikeWerx connected to AFWERX. We have established good contacts with the local academic community, and then established contacts on a wider scale. Therefore, the space for innovation, data, and ecosystem approach means that I think we can be more capable of maintaining profits and do it in a cost-effective way as possible. Therefore, this is only an important part of organization, training and equipment.

We definitely tie ourselves in space in a very formal way, because this is an important part of the way we operate. Multi-domain command and control, multi-domain operation means many sensors, many shooters. In order to be able to connect them together, I tell you that if you are serious about remote strikes, you are also serious about multi-domain operations, because this is what we are going to do. Therefore, this is an important part of our identity.

On Wednesday, February 5, 2020, at 12:33 AM Pacific time, an unarmed Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile was launched for testing at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.

How important is it to develop and adopt a simulation training technology that is compatible across the entire command and can be extended to the Air Force level?

Starting locally, we started to use augmented reality and virtual reality. It has already played a role in several of our departments. Of course, I saw the ability to introduce artificial intelligence into it to ensure that we are doing really smart things. We can now measure people’s performance more accurately, so you can compare it to standards.

I like simulation very much. You can do many things, but you must also do some real-world things. Therefore, you must balance these two things. They are not a precedent for each other, but it is actually to put them together correctly in order to provide you with the best trained pilots, and you are also very relevant. I think we will continue to work hard. I believe that all the new platforms we bring on the new helicopter (MH-139 Big Wolf), B-21, new intercontinental ballistic missile and new cruise missile, I think we must have all these capabilities in virtual reality, augmented reality , The dimensions of training and maintenance, support and operation. I think this must be the foundation, because it is a more affordable and effective method.

General Goldfein said that when it comes to nuclear companies, there may be significant investment costs, but the cost of losses will be much higher. Can you explain further?

When you think of our nuclear triad, you must look at it from the perspective of the Chinese triad. This is not big, but it is a triad and modernized. The Russian triad is large and modern. Then, look at our triad through the thoughts of our allies and partners. This is the context. And we cannot choose our own environment. We have no choice how we want to manage it. This is the reality of how it works.

The pilots of the 90th Missile Maintenance Squadron prepared a re-entry system to withdraw from the launch facility at the missile base at FE Warren Air Force Base on February 2, 2018. The 90th MMXS is the only squadron on FE Warren that is allowed to transport warheads from the missile system back to base. The missile maintenance team conducts regular maintenance to maintain the alert status of the launch facility, thereby ensuring the success of the nuclear deterrence mission.

How important is our commitment to our allies in this battle?

You will find that no matter what happens in the nuclear field, it needs to play a role in the capital of all our allies. What is it, what is not, what is its meaning, what is its meaning. Because there are some countries there, they routinely ask themselves if they need to establish a nuclear program. And since we are doing what we want to do, the answer is no, they don’t have to do it. Therefore, there is a non-proliferation aspect here. As early as the Cold War, there were Americans, British, French and Russians. Now there are India, Pakistan, North Korea and China, etc. You have a completely different world. We don’t need more. It only complicates it and makes it more difficult. Therefore, it must play a role in our minds on how we intend to maintain development in a feasible way. That is the difficult side.

Minuteman III was put into use in 1973. When we focus on updating these systems and moving towards a more integrated direction, how do you view the security of ICBM capabilities?

Security at all levels of the nuclear asset portfolio is of paramount importance. You must have a very high degree of assurance there. What we are doing is a priority

You are now facing the challenge of the old intercontinental ballistic missiles. When it's not (if not) you need to modernize new components, you will get an amazing integration fee. Currently, we do not have technical benchmarks, which means that we have to pay a high price for this. It is not built to be modular, so now we have to do more detailed engineering design, which will take longer. And the competition is weak, because there are only a few people, maybe one or two places may even want to take on this responsibility.

For the new system, "ground-based strategic deterrence", there is a different value proposition. First, it is a modular design. This is a mature technology. It can be placed underground for a long time. The number of teams we are talking about has been reduced by two-thirds, and this is a safer world. The site was processed and exposed to the outside, reduced by two-thirds. You will have more modern communication functions, which means you can design more network-resilient functions, and you can view redundant paths. Therefore, I think the ultimate value proposition is that being able to carry out affordable modernization actions or make changes to reduce security challenges and introduce modern technologies that you can now work in a competitive environment is just a value proposition. A smarter way to do business.

You mentioned that the Air Force has just purchased a new helicopter, and your command will use this helicopter. Can you talk about buying new technology for your order?

There is a formula for affordability. You need to have mature technology. You must have stable requirements. You need to have a technical benchmark so that you don’t have to pay the general contractor extra money to repair it. You need to be modular so that you can make modern modifications very easily instead of having to be a brand new engineering project. Therefore, you only need to redesign one piece to interact with all parts. Then, you must complete it on time, and then start the modernization plan. That is the formula. This is exactly how the new helicopter performs in a competitive environment. This is the best choice. I think we will find that it can meet our needs well. This will be a huge help, and I think it will be faster than deploying a brand new system. Therefore, we are modifying objects that have the ability to modify. I think this is a great success story.

MH-139A Big Gray Wolf landed in Dukefield, Florida during its unveiling and naming ceremony on December 19, 2019. The aircraft will replace the Air Force’s UH-1N Huey aircraft fleet and will be improved in terms of speed, range, endurance and payload.

The Air Force bears the great responsibility of assuming the most powerful weapon on the planet. What is your view on taking on such a huge responsibility?

Responsibility for two-thirds is huge...Every day, two-thirds of the country’s nuclear arsenal. Although there may be some destabilizing factors, the world without these special capabilities will be very different. I think that for us, consideration beyond the scope of daily management is also very important. If you really think about it, this is not only a global strike combination, but also an air force combination, and even the Department of Defense, the Department of Defense, which are all US arsenals. And the national arsenal, our leadership role in the world and the role we play, have huge applications on the entire planet. Therefore, this just illustrates its importance in daily work.

Along with the sand, rocks, and desert sunshine, the Marines of the 1st Division, 1st Division, 3rd Battalion, 7th Regiment of the Marine Corps continued to train through the Marine Corps Air-Ground Operations Center in Twentynine Palms, California, for the tireless force prepare for. July 15 to July 19, 2019.

The US Marine Corps Invictus participated in a five-day field operation. Based on their ability to shoot, move, and communicate with the target, they were evaluated as a squad.

When asked what is the purpose of the evaluation, Cpl. Team leader Zorenehf L. Yabao said: “It is necessary to understand where their performance is and what they need to improve during the pre-deployment training. From now on, it will not be easy.”

As the temperature reaches above 110 degrees, continuous running, yelling and shooting will cause huge losses. Albemarle added: “In the final analysis, you can control the team. You should not panic or worry about anything else. You must focus on the mission, the commander’s mission and purpose, and what needs to be done. Just focus on the team that cares about you, Control them and complete the task."

(Image source: Lance Cpl. Aaron Harshaw)

The company’s platoon leader, Lieutenant Michael Mursuli, said: “Morgan Well is one of the most difficult terrain because there are so many hills and cracks. The terrain here is different.”

The company has been trained in various weapon systems, from rifles and grenade launchers to machine guns and anti-armor launchers.

When the company commander spoke to company commander Richard Benning (Richard Benning), he asked the tiger, what is the difference between a lion and a wolf.

When faced with the chaos, he said: "The wolf is not in the circus. The wolf only cares about the wolf pack and the wolf pack. The criminal is the wolf pack."

When asked about the training area, Mursuri said: "The Twentynine Palms University team is a varsity team. There are more fields and training opportunities here. Negotiations on the terrain are very difficult, and there are more scopes and bigger Range, and the mountains themselves are the beasts to be solved. You are doing the work of the entire Marine Corps, but you are working on more difficult terrain."

Nimitz-class aircraft carrier

(CVN 75) and selected ships of the Eighth Aircraft Carrier Strike Fleet (CSG-8) joined the US Army, Air Force and Marine Corps on October 25, 2018. This is the largest NATO exercise since 2015-Trident Hub 2018 (TRJE 18).

The United States has a strong force of 14,000 people and will join participants from all 29 NATO member states as well as partners Sweden and Finland. The Harry Truman Aircraft Carrier Strike Team (HSTCSG) participates in TRJE 18 almost every day, and dispatches aircraft daily from Carrier Aviation Wing One (CVW-1) for maritime and Norwegian land flights. In the exercise, the strike team will conduct high-end warfare training in air, ground and underground operations. Through these focused, multi-task activities, HSTCSG will work with allies and partners to improve its capability network to respond quickly and decisively to various potential situations.

HSTCSG commander Major Gene Black said: "For nearly 70 years, the NATO alliance has been built on partnership, cooperation, and the maintenance of lasting peace." "In the past few weeks, our strike team has been in the North Atlantic. The action shows our commitment to these ideals, and we look forward to strengthening cooperation with allies and partners during the Trident war."

In the past few weeks, HSTCSG has spent a lot of time in the North Atlantic to perfect its skills and abilities and prepare for the exercise. After leaving the coast of Iceland and the North Sea, the strike team's ships crossed the Arctic Circle and began operations in the Norwegian Sea. For several days, the strike team has also fought with Norwegian Royal Navy ships in the Vestfjorden in the Norwegian territorial waters.

The aircraft carrier Harry Truman crosses the Strait of Gibraltar.

(Photo by Laura Hoover, Third Prize, US Navy Mass Communication Expert)

In addition to establishing stronger ties between allies and partners, the purpose of TRJE 18 is to ensure that NATO forces are trained to act together and are ready to respond to any threats to global security and prosperity.

The exercise will take place in Norway and the surrounding areas of the North Atlantic and Baltic Sea from October 25 to November 23, 2018, including Iceland and the airspace of Finland and Sweden. More than 50,000 participants will participate in the target training event, using approximately 250 aircraft, 65 ships and more than 10,000 support vehicles.

Black added: "We have always looked forward to participating in this event, and it is my honor." Trident Juncture provides our strike team with another opportunity to work closely with NATO allies so that we can learn together as we work towards our common goals. , Enhance our capabilities and become stronger together. "

Currently operating in the U.S. Sixth Fleet operating area,

We will continue to promote cooperation with regional allies and partners, strengthen regional stability, and remain vigilant, agile and full of vitality.

In January 1986, the country was very excited. Seven astronauts, including a civilian, are heading to space. An ordinary teacher

, This will be the first ordinary Joe in space. The Space Shuttle Challenger has successfully completed 9 missions. It should be no different. 

Sadly. Only a few minutes after launch, the space shuttle burst into steam and fire, and the audience watched in horror. The challenger exploded and killed everyone. So what happened? More importantly, will it happen again? 

NASA announced the first manned, reusable spacecraft in 1976. They named it the space shuttle. Only five years later, they took the space shuttle Columbia for a test flight. It went smoothly. The Challenger came out in 1983, and the mission is in full swing again. Before 1986, the space shuttle made eight more voyages.

The tenth voyage includes something unique: an ordinary high school social studies teacher. 37-year-old Christa McAuliffe has won a place through NASA's new "Space Teacher" program, which aims to inspire students to set their sights on future careers in technology, science, and space flight . It turns out that the task may have the opposite effect.

The mission was originally scheduled to be launched from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida on January 22. Due to weather and technical problems, the launch was delayed. On the 28th, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) promoted the launch. The engineer of the project was uneasy. They spoke out loud and told their superiors that some parts of the space shuttle were not meant to work in cold weather. Especially rubber O-rings are prone to failure at low temperatures. In any case, the Challenger was launched. 

Just 73 seconds later, the space shuttle exploded hundreds of onlookers. The family of the astronauts on the ship watched in horror from the ground, while the rest of the country broadcasted it live on the news. The space shuttle was scattered in the ocean. Of the seven crew members, not a single survivor. 

Understandably, future space travel has delayed this country. President Reagan set up a committee to find the cause of the explosion and to correct the problem for future space missions. After analysis by a panel of experts including the famous Neil Armstrong, the committee concluded that the engineer was correct. The rubber O-ring used to seal the Challenger rocket booster broke due to the cold. The flame can escape the booster, damage the fuel tank and undermine the integrity of the space shuttle. 

Morton Thiokol, the company that designed the booster, realized the potential problems. NASA managers are also aware of the risks, but after several successful missions, they did not take them seriously. 

This is where the problem lies. The task is so routine that the details are ignored. Even all the details clearly illustrate the difference between a historic success and a tragic tragedy.

Have we learned from our arrogance? hope. 

After the Challenger exploded, NASA was shot down several nails. They spent two years perfecting their design before launching the new space shuttle Discovery. The space shuttle continued to perform several successful missions, including the construction of the International Space Station or ISI. 

But in 2003,

. Colombia failed to re-enter the atmosphere and collapsed in the air. Again, all seven passengers were killed. The mission resumed in 2005, but in 2011, the space shuttle program officially ended. The risks of space shuttle travel are too high to obtain potential rewards. 

Understanding that humans, especially Americans, our future in space has passed is questionable. The space shuttle is adventurous and experimental, but the astronauts on board know this. Like a climber who climbed Mount Everest or Lindbergh's first transatlantic flight, a space explorer was forced to do it-no matter what the price. 

Although Christa McAuliffe paid the ultimate price, her backup, an educator named Barbara Morgan, made it safely into space and returned to 2007 year. The "challenger" disaster tells us that when lives are dying, there is no room for arrogance. Just a little impatience can be fatal. The space teacher taught us to keep working hard no matter what.

The bodies of two old helicopters were found on Bob Fritzler's residence. When he walked on the road to his large garage, they stood beside him.

He had to use a huge trailer to tow them to the farm by truck. He thought it felt a lot like driving halfway. He is not worried about the effect of the weather on the adult birds outside. He just used them as parts.

Fritzler's real treasure sits in the large garage on his land near Keenesburg. He is working to repair the U.S. Marine Corps Sikorsky H-34 helicopter, which was flown during Operation SHUFLY, which was mainly used to transport troops in Vietnam between 1962 and 1965. In battle.

Fritzler said that helicopters were a huge game changer for the Marine Corps at the time. The pilot may drop the soldier anywhere. In the past, they relied on ships, which required the coast.

Fritzler, 82, has served in the U.S. Marine Corps for 11 years. When he was a pilot, he flew a helicopter. Several other squadrons also flew up. He hopes to restore it and eventually put it in the Smithsonian Museum in Washington, D.C.

Fritzler attended a Marine Corps party a few years ago. There, he met Gerald Hale from Oklahoma, who restored the old plane to a flightable condition. Hail invited him to fly, and Fritzler accepted. There, Fritzler noticed H-34.

"I saw the bullet hole patch," Fritzler said. "I know I can count more than 100 bullet holes."

The bird has aged, and many marine green paints have worn away to aluminum. Fritzler's old squadron number was painted with a different squadron number, but he still believed that this helicopter was the one he flew.

Fritzler said: "I feel sympathy for this."

He asked if Hail could be purchased from him so that he could recover it. Hail said he would consider it. About a month later, Hail called Fritzler and told him that if Fritzler would repair the helicopter, he would donate the helicopter.

Fritzler has been working on restoration projects here and there for two years. He has experience in repairing machines. He grew up on a farm in Windsor and spent most of his life reusing farm equipment. He thought it made him quite convenient.

But this is a long process. It takes time to track parts that are no longer produced. He purchased an old blue and white Marine Corps helicopter as a part. The previous owner has certified it for commercial use and is used to lift large air conditioning units. Fritzler also bought an old army helicopter.

"Both (helicopters) are very complete," Fritzler said. Now, he only needs to figure out which parts the H-34 needs and which parts to take from other parts.

Fritzler said that he is no longer a teenager, so his energy is limited.

Fritzler said: "It took me a short time to realize that I was biting more than my chewing ability." "I got some help from other people."

He has to work a few hours a day, sometimes even more. He is mainly dedicated to deconstructing old works and finding new ones to replace them.

Sometimes, when Fritzler looks back on his life as a pilot, he wonders if he really did all the things he remembered. That was a long time ago. He has made two trips in Vietnam and also conducted some airline flights. But his last flight in the cockpit was more than 20 years ago.

He said: "I still like flying."

He may no longer be able to fly a plane, but this may be the next best thing.

Before Lindbergh (Lindbergh) appeared, there was the United States Coast Guard pilot Comm. Sailor aircraft pilot Elmer F. Stone participated in the sailor’s epic rescue, set a world speed record for seaplanes, and was a member of the team that completed the first transatlantic flight, winning around the United States Praise the world.

Coast Guard Commander Elmer F. Stone (Elmer F. Stone), a pioneer of aviation, a pioneer of world records, and a hero of search and rescue.

(United States Coast Guard)

Stone joined the Revenue Cutter Service at the age of 23 and was sent to study the engines of the ships he assigned, and was quickly promoted to the ship’s engineering supervisor to help him in the future in steam and gasoline engines. Professional knowledge lays the foundation. The Harvester Service and the U.S. Life Saving Service merged into the Coast Guard in 1915, and some officers in the joint military department promoted the use of aviation in search and rescue missions.

Young Stone is one of those visionaries. He participated in flight training in Pensacola, Florida from April 1916 to April 1917, and was appointed as the Navy’s 38th pilot and the number one in the Coast Guard. Pilots. Soon after, he was sent to the navy to participate in World War I, and participated in frigate patrols and convoy escorts in the Atlantic Ocean.

The flight crew of NC-4. Coast Guard Lieutenant Elmer Stone (Elmer Stone) is second from right.

But it wasn't until after the First World War that he really became famous. Soon after the end of the armistice agreement, Stone was appointed as the pilot of the Coast Guard seaplane NC-4 and participated in a six-team competition for the first transatlantic flight. The United States has 3 teams (the other 2 are NC-1 and NC-3 pilots) and 3 British teams.

The NC-4 team faced early troubles after taking off in New York, because the plane’s four large engines were picky at best. They were forced to land to replace a broken rod and found that their steel propeller had broken. They obtained wooden substitutes, then flew over Canada, finally over the Atlantic, and then over the Atlantic.

After the meeting, the victory crew of NC-4 took a photo with Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin Roosevelt.

The three American teams headed east together, but NC-1 and NC-3 lost their bearings and landed at sea in an attempt to obtain celestial navigation. This is a risky move, because the plane needs to skim the waves for two miles before it can take off again. Unfortunately, both planes were damaged during landing and could not take off for a long time, which forced them to retire.

Therefore, Stone and his team moved on and landed in Lisbon, Portugal on May 27, 1919, and won the game. Team members, including Stone, were honored and decorated by the Portuguese government and received cash awards from the London Daily Mail. Soon after, they

From

, Stone received a letter from Franklin Roosevelt, Assistant Secretary of the Navy.

Eight years later, Charles Lindbergh made a similar solo flight and made history.

Naval aviation Akron (Akron) was her largest man-made flying object at the time, but unfortunately lost her life in a storm in 1933.

(U.S. Navy)

He was sent to the Navy again in 1920,

. He was released from the Navy back to the Coast Guard in 1926 and served as an executive officer in the following years, and then as the commander of the Coast Guard cutter and destroyer used in Prohibition.

In 1931, he returned to aviation, conducted seaplane tests and commanded Coast Guard gas stations. While serving as the commander, Stone attended a meeting at the Naval Air Force Base Anacostia in 1933 and learned that the flying aircraft carrier Akron, used for reconnaissance and observation, had fallen in a storm.

Stone was a personal friend of some naval pilots on Akron, and he immediately drove his way into the storm and rough seas that were destined for a spaceship. At the time, most Coast Guard platforms reported that their ships could not reach the crash site safely due to the turbulent waves.

But none of this prevented

. Unfortunately, he could not save any pilots serving on the airship. This event will become a fatal airship crash in naval history.

A few years later, in 1934, Stone flew a seaplane over a channel in Brocroe, Virginia, reaching a speed of 191 miles per hour, breaking the record for amphibious aircraft flying speed at the time, and winning again. Won the praise of his government and helped him get promoted to the rank of Marine Corps. Commander, his last promotion.

Unfortunately, two years later, he died of a serious heart attack while inspecting the aircraft in the San Diego Air Patrol Detachment.

Wojtek was popular among members of the Polish army in 1942

They have a spy in the camp.

Polish soldiers were released by Russia after Germany invaded Germany in 1941, and they are returning to Europe through the Middle East. It is not uncommon to meet new members during such a trip, but Wojtek's situation is different because he is a bear.

Wojtek's mother is believed to have been shot by a hunter. Polish soldiers purchased Wojtek while in Iran and joined the 22nd Artillery Supply Company of the Polish Second Army in 1942.

(Watch more information on "We Are Almighty"

! )

He continued to travel with them through Iraq and into Egypt.

In order to board a ship to Europe in 1943, Wojtek

A soldier, so the Poles formally recruited him to have his own payroll and serial number for private individuals.

Wojtek eventually weighed more than 400 pounds, and he also received a double ration.

The emblem of the 22nd Artillery Support Company of the 2nd Polish Regiment.

"He is like a child, like a puppy. He drank milk from a bottle like a baby. Therefore, he felt that these soldiers were almost his parents, so he trusted us and was very friendly." Polish soldier Wojciech Narebski , He spent three years with Wojtek during the war,

They also share a name-Wojtek is the lowercase form of the name Wojciech,

"Happy warrior."

Now Wojtek’s story is recorded in

Produced by animator Iain Harvey and the executive producer of Raymond Brigg’s 1982 adaptation of the children’s story "The Snowman", which won an Oscar Nominated for the award, it is still shown on British television every Christmas.

When he was told Wojtek, Harvey thought the story was "pure fantasy" and he

this week. "It's great to have a piece of real magic."

Wojtek was finally promoted

Become the mascot of his unit.

soldier

With bears, who also likes smoking and drinking. "For him, a bottle of wine is nothing," Narebski told the BBC. "He weighed [440 pounds]. He was not drunk."

Narebski said that he was trained to not pose a threat to people and was "very quiet and very peaceful." but he

The soldiers also adopted another bear and a monkey.

Narebski told the BBC that Wojtek was cheering for the department. "From a psychological point of view, this is very important for people who are far away from their families and their motherland."

But in the battle in Italy, he is more than just a good partner.

A British soldier at the Battle of Monte Cassino

He was surprised to see the six-foot-tall bear dragging the shells to supply the Allies. The company's patch also features Wojtek's shell.

Movie producer releases

About Wojtek in 2011. Harvey’s project "The Bear named Wojtek" has received funding from Poland, but he is still looking for a UK partner.

He will contact Channel 4 and companies such as the BBC and Netflix.

Harvey's project will be released on the 75th anniversary of its founding in 2008

May 8, 2020.

According to the "Times" report, it takes about 30 animators to make this 30-minute movie, drawing each scene by hand on a tablet every year.

Narebski met with Wojtek before the Battle of Bologna, Italy, in April 1945.

When his troops were demobilized in Scotland, the bear was placed in Edinburgh Zoo.

Monument to Wojtek in Krakow.

Former members of his unit often visited him in the zoo until he died in 1963 at the age of 21.

Nalebski returned to Poland, but due to restrictions imposed by the Polish government, it was difficult to maintain contact with his former comrades (whether human or bear).

However, he never forgot Wojtek.

"I think he is so happy," Narebski

. "I think he is my brother."

Some people may be surprised that the fighting in Vietnam is not limited to the Soviet-backed North or the United States-backed South Vietnamese forces. Like communist China and other communist movements in the region fighting for the unification of Vietnam under the red flag, there are other militant, free countries in the region that deliberately keep South Vietnam away from communism. One of them is South Korea. South Korea’s tactics are sometimes so cruel and must be controlled by the US military.

However, cruelty does not always inspire fear, and fear is what strikes the hearts of the Communists when they know they are fighting against the Australians. The death of the Australians made it possible that the Viet Cong would never see it again.

(Australian War Memorial)

Nowadays, the scene of the Vietnam War is often that the U.S. military is fighting an enemy that is inseparable from the jungle when performing search and rescue missions. When the North Vietnamese Army or the Viet Cong did attack the Americans with this feeling, it was an invisible and unexpected ambush that crushed the Americans and forced them to return to the fire. In fact, this is not the way the Vietnam War was conducted at all. In Vietnam, many battles are also carried out in cities, also to defend those firepower bases. There are even fierce battles featuring tanks and artillery. In fact, the Easter offensive in 1972 was the largest land movement since the Chinese entered the Korean War. It was characterized by a three-pronged invasion of the South.

Therefore, we should not pretend to be rice farmers and American soldiers.

But the North Vietnamese troops are in the jungle

Having to worry about a mysterious fighting force, they silently approached them and killed them. They are not American-they are Australian, they came to Vietnam to win.

The Centurion Mark V/1 tank of C Squadron, 1st Armored Regiment of the Royal Australian Armored Corps occupied the periphery of the Fire Support Base (FSB) coral shortly after arriving at the base.

(Neil James Ahern)

Australian special operations forces will enter the Vietnamese jungle

, Often

When they tracked northern troops in the jungle. Australians invested more troops in the Vietnam War than any other foreign contributor (except the United States). This is so far Australia’s largest force in conflicts with foreign countries, and it is also Australia’s largest war. But their behavior is slightly different, especially in special operations.

Just as the U.S. forces traveled through the jungle, avoided booby traps and were ambushed, North Vietnamese forces must face the same tactics when dealing with the Australians. Australians often ambush booby traps used by NVA patrols and the Viet Cong. When they do participate in fierce battles (for example, in places like Binh Ba), Australians are not afraid of fighting and moving. In fact, the NVA suffered heavy beatings in Binh Ba and they were forced to abandon the entire province.

A US Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter provided a warehouse for the Royal Australian Artillery 102 Field Battery of the Coral, a fire support base under construction.

(Keith Foster)

The Vietnamese did not have much luck in attacking the Australians. In 1968, when the Firebase Coral-Balmoral was attacked, there were almost two to one more communists than Australians and New Zealanders. They hit the base with mortar shells in an attempt to withdraw ANZAC troops from the base and defeated the arrogant Australians. When 120 Australians came out to clean the mortar, they found far more than a mortar company-they found 2,000 NVA soldiers around.

The Australians fought relentlessly, sometimes calling for dangerous close-range shelling from New Zealand and American positions. Countless battles were encircled until an Australian rescue force came out from the base to help their tortured teammates. The NVA used the entire regiment to launch an attack on the firebase, but was repelled. This time, instead of sitting down and waiting for another attack, the Australians and New Zealanders went out with the Centurion tank to meet with the enemy. The Coral-Balmoral battle lasted for nearly a month: offensive, counterattack, offensive counterattack. The NVA is strong, and the Australians are strong.

In the end, as long as the Australians defend it, the NVA will be sent away and avoid Nui Dat Province.

The Marine Corps F-35 recently carried out the first “hot reload” of its ordnance, and quickly dropped 1,000-pound bombs in the Pacific. The Marine Corps

In a statement.

The Marine Corps F-35B Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter, equipped with 1,000 pounds of GBU-32 joint direct attack ammunition and 500 pounds of GBU-12 Paveway II laser-guided bombs, took off from the USS amphibious assault ship

Then it hit the large inflatable red target "Killer Tomato".

After lowering the payload, the aircraft quickly returned to the ship, refueled, reloaded, and began a second attack on the floating target.

The fifth-generation stealth fighters also fired with their GAU-22 cannon, which can use four barrels at the same time and fire 3,300 rounds per minute. The 25mm gun is

Installed on Army.com and carried by an external pod on the Marine Corps F-35 variant, the pod can take off and land vertically over short distances on a amphibol that is basically a small aircraft carrier.

Sea thermal reloading is a vital capability that can provide a surge of offensive air support for assault missions in this theater, where the US military is increasingly trained to fight in a controversial environment. Although the training does not directly target any specific opponent, the US military is focused on competition among major powers and is training for high-intensity conflicts with China and Russia.

"Our recent F-35B exercise demonstrated the lethality of the 31st Wing and its ability to be ready to deal with potential opponents." The 31st Naval Expeditionary Commander, Colonel Robert Brodie (Robert Brodie) boarded.

, Said in a statement. "The speed at which we can perform destructive precision strikes while providing close air support to the Marines is awesome. Bottom line; the F-35B is shocking and awesome!"

An F-35B Lightning II made a vertical landing for the first time on the sea flight deck of the amphibious assault ship "Wasp".

(Photo by Natasha R. Chalk, US Navy Mass Communication Seaman)

The 31st Aviation Unit’s Aviation Officer No. 3 Chief Warranty Officer Daniel Sallese said the unit is learning to “reduce damage in an unprecedented way.”

Marine Corps F-35B with 31st MEU

Another milestone earlier this year was flying in "beast mode" and using externally loaded inert ammunition and live ammunition to perform strike missions.

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